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Unit 18

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Unit 18

Warming up

1.Look at the map of China and the names of countries, islands and seas beyond China. What are the positions of the different places and waters in relation to China?

beyond China 除中国外 beyond 的用法如下:


I didn’t notice anything beyond his ratherUnit 18 strange accents.



The bicycle is beyond repair.


After 25 years the town center has changed beyond recognition.


The news is beyond belief.


Her skill as a musician is beyond praise.


The result is beyond his hopes.



It won’t go on beyond the midnight.



The house is beyond the bridge.


相关短语:be beyond sb.使某人难以想象、理解、估计

It’s beyond me why she wants to marry Jim.

How people design computer games is beyond me.

in (with )relation to China 关于中国

relation 的用法如下:


the relation between cause and effect因果关系

in(with)relation to that affair关于那件事

an answer with no relation to the question与问题无关的答复

bear no relation to something同某事无关


the foreign relations of a country国家的对外关系

have business relations with a person同某人有商业来往


a poor relation 穷亲戚

a close/near/distant relation of mine我的一个近亲、远亲

2 The East China Sea lies to the east of Zhejiang Province.

China lies/is in the east of Asia.(在范围之内)

Canada lies/is on the north of America.(接壤)

Japan lies /is to the east of China.(不接壤、在范围之外)

East /south/west/north of A lies/is B A的东南西北有一个B

North of the school lie/are two shops.

South of the toilet lies/is a post office.

N---Adj N---Adj

East-eastern west-western-westerner(N)

north-northern south-southern

northeast-northeastern southwest-southwestern

northwest-northwestern southeast-southeastern


1.Where is your great-grandfather on your father’s side from?

On your father’s side 意思是“父系的、父亲的”

My aunt on my mother’s side我的姨妈

A cousin on my father’s side 父系的表亲


1.New Zealand is an island that lies off the eastern coast of Australia.

注意:on the coast 与off the coast 两者的意思都是“靠近岸边”,但前者表示“在岸上”;后者表示“在海上”。

1)off 意为“离、距”

The town is five miles off.这里离城五英里。

They were sailing two miles off shore.他们在离岸两英里的海上航行。

The holidays are not far off.离假期不远了。

May Day is only a week off.离“五一”节只有一星期了。

2)off 还可解释为“靠近

The restaurant is just off the main road.这家饭店就在主干道旁边。

2.It is made up of two large islands…

be made up of…由…组成, 其主动形式为 “ make up”

This class is made up of 65 students.

65 students make up this class.

make up 的其他意思

Make up a story/a dialogue(=create a dialogue)编故事、编对话

Make up a list造表,列表

She likes making up before leaving.在走之前,她总是化一下妆。

Make up (for)the loss弥补损失

Shake hands and make it up握手言归于好。

Make up one’s mind下定决心

Make up a bundle of old clothes for the flood victims为水灾受难者整理出一包旧衣服

3.New Zealand is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean to the north and east…

Vt surround …with/by…

He woke up and found himself surrounded by several children.他醒来发现自己身边围着几个孩子。

They have surrounded the town with troops.他们出动军队包围了该城。

The house is surrounded by/with a wall.这所房子周围有一道围墙。

N a fireplace with a tiled surround 周围镶有瓷砖的壁炉

Adj York and the surrounding country 约克城及其近郊

N(pl) surroundings

Live in comfortable surroundings.生活在舒适的环境里。]

The hospital is in beautiful surroundings.这所医院环境优美。

4.It rains quite a lot.=It rains much.=It rains a great deal

5.More than 120 years later, Captain James Cook took possession of the islands in 1769 and from that time British people started to settle in New Zealand.


1) 所有、拥有、占有(不可数)

get possession of sth 取得某物

The players fought for possession of the ball. 队员们争取对求得控制。


my personal possessions我个人的财产

a man of great possessions 富翁


Most of Britain’s possessions overseas are now independent countries.



take possession of sth.=占有、成为所有者

You can’t take possession of the house until all the papers are signed.不到所有证件签好字,你不能搬到那所房子里住。

take possession of sth=come into possession of sth=enter into possession of sth占有某物

come into possession of sth占有某物

On her father’s death, she came into possession of a vast fortune.


come into sb’s possession被某人占有

in possession of sth 占有控制

in the possession of sb=in sb’s possession (某物)被某人占有

Their opponents were in possession of the ball for most of the match.


Fight for /win/get possession of the ball.争球

The possession of a passport is essential for foreign travel.


V possess 拥有,占有,具有(品质、才能等),控制,支配

He possesses 2 cars.他有两辆车。

Does he possess the necessary patience to do the job well?


She was possessed by jealousy.她妒火中烧。

Adj possessive

The child was very possessive with his toys.这个孩子把玩具把得紧紧的。(不与他人分享)

Possessive parents 让子女唯命是从的父母

settle vi , vt

1)在某国等殖民 ;安定、定居、安家落户

The Dutch settled in South Africa.


Settle in New York在纽约定居

After years of travel, we decided to settle here.我们旅行多年后,决定再次定居。

Settle in London/in Canada/in the country/near the coast在伦敦、加拿大、乡村、沿海安家


The bird settled on a branch.那只鸟落在树枝上了。

The dust has settled on everything.到处都是积尘。

The cold has settled on my chest.我患感冒已引起我胸部不适(咳)

3)settle sb/sth使…平静、镇静或放松

This pill will help to settle your nerves.你吃了这片药神经就不那么紧张了。

He had been quite anxious, but I managed to settle his mind.


Wait until all the excitement has settled.等到激动情绪平静下来再说。


settle a question

Nothing is settled yet.什么也没定下来。

You should settle your affairs before you leave.你应该把你的事处理好再走。


settle a room 整理房间

6) settle down

Wait until the children settle down before you start the lesson.等学生都静下心来再开始上课。

After all the excitement things have begun to settle down again.


The chairman tried to settle the audience down.


She settled down in an armchair to read her book.


7)settle (down)to sth安下心来

The constant interruptions stopped me from settling (down)to my work.


Adj settled 不变的 lead a more settled life 过着安定些的生活live(lead)a happy/hard/quite/miserable/comfortable/unhealthy life

N: settlement settler殖民者,定居者

6.Around 1421, Chinese sailors discovered the islands on one of their voyages around the world.

n. make a voyage across Atlantic 作横越大西洋的航行

go on a voyage from A to B 由A航行前往B

on the outward/homeward voyage 在出航途/返航途中

v. voyage across the Indian Ocean作穿越印度洋的航行

voyage through space 航天飞行

7.By 1840 about 2000 Europeans, mainly British, had come to settle in New Zealand and the Maori signed an agreement with these settlers.

Sign an agreement签约 break an agreement 破坏、不遵守协议

By agreement 依约、同意 come to /reach/arrive at/make an agreement with sb 与某人达成协议

In agreement with按照,与…一致,符合

I’m quite in agreement with what you say.=I quite agree with what you say.我十分同意你所说的话。

8.What do the words in bold refer to ?

be in bold(type)粗体字

bold plans大胆的计划

a bold scheme to rebuild the city center重建城市中心的大胆计划

the bold outline of a mountain against the sky天空衬托出山的清楚轮廓

(as) bold as brass厚颜无耻

She came in, bold as brass, and asked me to lend him $50.

refer to :


Don’t refer to that again.不要再提这件事了。


Refer to a dictionary about it.关于这一点查查字典吧。

The speaker often referred to his notes.演讲者说话时常常要看稿子。


What I have to say refer to all of you.我要说的事和你们大家都有关。

Language study

1.They are going to invite me to dinner…

Invite sb to dinner/a palace ball/a concert/a party

2.It is only a matter of time before they will discover that John has left.

A matter of… …的问题

A matter of time/money/life and death 时间/金钱/生死攸关的问题

It’s only a matter of time whether they can succeed.

Integrating skills

1. New Zealand has a population of about 3.8 million people, of which about fourteen percent are Maori.新西兰人口大约有三百八十万,其中约百分之十四是毛利人。


What’s the population of China?中国的人口有多少?

China has a population of a thousand million.=It’s a thousand million.中国有十亿人口。

China has the largest population in the world. 世界上中国的人口最多。

The population of Canada is small.加拿大人口少。

The population of Jiangsu province is large.江苏省的人口多。

The population of developed countries are mostly workers.


2.New Zealand wine is of hign quality….

1)be of +n.(表种类、年龄、颜色、形状、价格等)名词前常用a(n),the same, different等修饰

be of …age( color, shape, type, size, etc.)

Those cars are of a dark grey. 这些小汽车都是深灰色。

The two rooms are of a size (of the same size).这两个房间一样大。

The two computers are of the same type.这两台电脑是同一类型的。

We are of the same age.我们年龄相同。

They were both of middle height.他们两人都是中等个儿。

2)be of +抽象名词==be+名词相对应的形容词

What you learned from the report is of importance.

=is important.

His advice is of great value to me.=His advice is very valuable to me.

His friends are of help to him.=His friends are helpful to him.

English is of great use.=English is very useful.

It was of no use to him.=It was useless to him.

3. Some farmers have turned to keeping deer…有些农场主已转向了养鹿…

1)turn to 意为“转向”

He turned to the study of medicine.他转向学医了。

After she left the university, she became a teacher, but later turned to journalism.大学毕业后,他先当了老师,但后来转行,干新闻工作了。


He has nobody she can turn to.他求助无门。

He is the person to whom people can turn in difficult times.他是人们在困难时可以求助的人。

The child turned to his mother for comfort.那孩子向母亲寻求安慰。

The more depressed he got, the more he turned to drink.他情绪越低越是借酒浇愁。


The road turned to the left.这条路向左拐弯。


It’s time we turned to.该是我们着手工作的时候了。


Please turn to Page 20.请翻到第二十页。




  1. 由并列结构或连词(either…or, neither…nor,not…but, not only…but also, or等)连接的并列主语,谓语动词与靠近的那个名词或代词保持一致。

  例句:Neither his parents nor Tom is at home. Tom和他的父母都不在家。

  Note:“either…or, neither…nor, or”连接的两个主语若是一单一复,最好将复数主词放在后面而接复数动词。

  2. 在倒装句和there be句型中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语保持一致。

  例句:There is a book and some pens on the desk. 桌子上有一本书和几支钢笔。

  There comes the bus. 汽车来了。

  3. 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语,其谓语动词应与它所指代的先行词保持一致。

  例句:I know the man who is talking to my father.我认识那个正在和我父亲谈话的人。

  4. 在强调句中,连接代词又在句中作主语,这时它应与被强调的主语保持一致。

  例句:It is Mary’s brother who was injured in the car accident. 是Mary的哥哥在车祸中受伤了。


  1. 当主语与谓语动词之间插入along with,with,as well as,together with, no less than,besides,except, but, including等短语时,谓语动词不受这些插入语的干扰,依然和主语保持一致。

  例句:I, along with my sister, am going to Shanghai next month. 我,还有我姐姐,打算下个月去上海。

  2. 英语中有一类单、复数同型的词(people,means,sheep,deer,fish等),其单、复数取决于它在句中的含义。

  例句:All of the people in the country have been prepared for the great reformation.这个国家的人都已经为大变革做好了准备。

  3. 多数情况下,由“what”引导的名词性从句作主语时,其后的谓语动词通常用单数形式。

  例句:What I want to say is just “ Take care!”.我只想说:“多保重!”

  4. 当主语与all, none, any,some等不定代词、形容词连用时,应根据具体句意,来决定其后的谓语动词的单复数。

  例句:All I know about this company is what he told me yesterday.我对这家公司的了解都是昨天完他告诉我的。

  5. “…+ (of) +名词”结构描述数量时,如果“of”后的名词为单数(不可数名词),则谓语动词用单数,如果名词为复数,则谓语动词用复数。

  例句:Most of the water here is clean.大部分的水是干净的。

  80% cotton has been sent to America.80%的棉花已经被送往美国。

  Half of the apples are red.有一半儿的苹果是红的。

  6. 词组“a number of, a great/good many, a group of +可数名词复数”的结构作主语时,谓语动词应用复数;如果冠词a变为the,则谓语动词用单数。

  例句: A number of ancient buildings are destroyed in the war.许多的古代建筑在战争中被毁。

  The number of the visitors has decreased this year. 游客的数量今年减少了。

  7. 英语的集体名词(committee, crowd, family, public, group, party, team, class, club, company, union等词),指代“整体”时为单数;指代“其中的各成员”则为复数。

  例句:My family was very poor when I was a little girl.当我还是一个小女孩儿的时候,我家很穷。

  My family are all looking forward for your coming. 我的家人都在期待着你的到来


  1. 从句、不定式、动名词等作主语时谓语动词一律视作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:When to leave has not been decided.什么时候离开还没有定下来。

  Go shopping on Sunday is one of his habits.周日购物是他的一个习惯。


  例句:What he said and what he did were always different.他所说的和他所做的总是不一样。

  2. 如果两个以上的名词组成一个整体概念作主语时,谓语动词须用单数。

  例句: The novelist and poet is going to Europe next year.这位小说家兼诗人打算明年去欧洲。

  The novelist and the poet are going to Europe next year.小说家和诗人都打算明年去欧洲。

  分析:a)句中小说家和诗人the novelist and poet为同一个人,故谓语动词用单数;而b)句中有两个人,一个是小说家the novelist,另一个是诗人the poet。

  3. 专用名词,如:书名、剧名、报刊名、国家(组织)名等,通常作单数用。

  例句:The United States was found it 1776.美国成立于1776年。

  4. 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:10 minutes is enough.十分钟足够了。


  例句:2 times 3 makes 6. 二乘三等于六。


  1. and连结的两个或多个主语前如果有each, every, no等修饰语时(后面的一个有时也可省略),后面的谓语动词用单数形式。

  例句:Every man and every woman is busy at working.每个人都在忙着工作。

  2. 英语句中的each, either, neither等词,既可作代词充当主语,又可作形容词修饰主语,这时的谓语动词一律用单数。

  例句:Neither of us has been abroad. 我们谁都没出过国。

  3. 由some, any every, no构成的复合词(somebody,nobody,everything,anything等)作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

  例句:Somebody is waiting for you at the school gate.有人在学校门口等你。

  4. many a / more than one + 单数名词,一般接单数谓语动词。

  例句:Many a man does not understand Einstein’s relativity.许多人不明白爱因斯坦的相对论。

  5. “one and a half + 复数名词”作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。

  例句:One and a half hours has passed. 一个半小时过去了。

  6. 成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses, scissors, shoes,  trousers,pants,gloves,stockings等)作主语时,通常谓语动词用复数,但如果前面有a /the pair of;a /the suit of等词语时,则谓语动词要用单数。

  例句:A pair of scissors is useful tool for a dressmaker.剪刀是裁缝的重要工具。

  7. 以“-s”结尾的“复数”名词(例如;一些学科名词mathematics, physics, politics等),或以“-s”结尾的地点名词、人名等词后面的谓语动词通常用单数。

  例句:Mathematics is my favorite subject.数学是我最喜欢的科目。

New words and expressions

1. avoid vt. 避免,躲避; 预防,防止

avoid sth / avoid doing sth

You can avoid danger by being careful.

I took the other direction so as to avoid meeting her.

He told a lie in order to avoid being punished.

I just avoided running over the cat. 我差点儿轧着猫。

Try to avoid accidents. 尽量防止发生事故。

2. contact

n.接触,联系(contact with )

The two substances are now in contact with each other, and a chemical reaction is occurring.

Pupils must be brought into contact with new ideas.

The troops came into contact with the enemy.

We are out of contact with our friends. / be in contact with sb.

He lost contact with his son.

keep in contact with sb. / get in contact with sb.

make contact with 与某人交谈会晤或取得联系

I finally made contact with her in Paris.

vt. 联系,与来往

Where can I contact you tomorrow?

3. frown

vi. 1) frown at 皱眉,蹙额

What’s wrong? Why are you frowning?

Peter frowned at the noise coming from the boys’ bedroom.

2) frown on/upon sth. 不赞成,不许可,不同意

My parents always frown on late nights out. 不赞成深夜外出。

n. She looked up from her exam paper with a worried frown.

I noticed a slight frown of disapproval on his face.

4. lean v. (leant, leaned)

1) 倾斜,弯曲,屈身

lean forward, lean back

lean out of the window, back in one’s chair, over to one side.

2) lean against/upon/on sth. 依靠在某物上

The ladder is leaning against the wall.

The old man leant upon/on his stick.

3) lean sth. against/on sth.使某物靠在另一物上

The workmen leant their shovels against the fence and went to lunch.

4) lean on/upon for sth.依靠某人(某事物)=depend on

Young people lean on old people for guidance/advice/support.

5. ahead (时间、空间)在前,向前

He ran ahead. Walk straight ahead.

The way ahead is broken. Do you know the tall man ahead?

ahead of 1)(时间、空间)更前、更早

London is about five hours ahead of New York.

Ahead of us lay ten days of intensive training.

2) 处于领先地位,领先

She was always well ahead of the rest of the class.

His ideas were ahead of his time

ahead of time/schedule 提前

He finished the work ahead of time.(=in advance; beforehand;)

---- Would you mind my opening the door?

----No, go ahead.

----Let’s practise speaking in English ?

----Good idea. Go ahead.

6. manage vt/vi.

1) 负责,管理,经营,

manage a shop, business, factory

2) 控制,驾御

manage a naughty boy ; manage a difficult horse.

He’s good at managing his money.

3) 设法完成 manage to do sth

In spite of these difficulty, he managed to finish the task.

I can’t borrow the money so I’ll have to manage without.应付(将就)

4) 与can, could, be able to连用,达到,做成

I haven’t been learning French for long, so I can only manage a few words.

I can’t manage another piece of cake.

Despite his disappointment, he managed a smile. 他尽管很失望,还是强颜一笑。

7. vary

1) vi. 不同(vary in sth) 变化(vary with… , vary from… to…)

Prices vary with the seasons.

Her mood varies from optimism to extreme depression. 她的情绪有乐观一变而为极度消沉。Customs vary from country to country.

Opinions vary on this point.

The results of the experiment varied wildly.

These fish vary in weight from 3 jin to 5 jin.

2) 改变,使多样化

You must vary your working pace/ the method of study/ the programme..

3) adj. various n. variety

for various reasons /for a variety of reasons / for varieties of reasons

8. crazy adj.疯狂的,狂热的

He is crazy.

The noise is driving me The noise is making me go crazy.

You must be crazy to go walking in such terrible weather.

The kids went crazy when the film star appeared.

be crazy about 狂热,热衷

I am crazy about maths. She’s crazy about him.

like crazy 极度,非常=very much

work/talk/run like crazy 拼命工作/讲话/跑

9. part 分开,分离 part (from sb); part sb from sb

The police parted the crowd.

The children were parted from their parents.

She has parted from her husband.

The crowd parted to let them through.

It is 3 years since they parted.

The clouds parted and the sun shone through.云开日出

part with sth. 放弃或出让某物=give away

Although he is poor, he refused to part with his collected stamps.

Take/play an active part in sth. 积极参加某事

play a major /important/significant part in sth 在某方面起重大作用

10. firm adj.

1) 坚实的,坚硬的

This wet ground id not firm enough to walk on.

firm soil坚硬的土壤 firm flesh/muscles 结实的肌肉

2) 牢固的,稳固的,坚固的

This building has a firm ground.

A firm foundation坚固的基础

3) 稳定而有力的 a firm handshake

Mother kept a firm hold on her son's hands as he said goodbye to her abroad.



We have a firm belief in this fact.

He has made a firm decision.

be firm with 对坚决,坚定

Parents should be firm with their parents.严格要求孩子

adv. firmly 坚固地,稳固地

The belt was firmly fixed to the astronaut when he floated in space.

11. bow v.

1) 鞠躬,点头

The actors and actresses bowed as the audience applauded.

We all bowed to the Queen.

2) 压弯

The branches was bowed down by the snow on them.

His back was bowed with age.

3) bow sb. in/out弯腰迎入/送出

4) bow to sth. 顺从,接受某事物

bow to sb’s experience

5) n. He left with a bow.

Cupid’s bow 丘比特之剑

12 get through

1) 用完,消耗掉

She gets through thirty cigarettes a day.

We get through a lot of money while we were on holiday.

2) 做完,完成

Let’s start. There’s a lot of work to get through today.

I’ve got through a lot of letters today.

As soon as I get through with my work, I’ll join you.

3) 及格,通过

get through the exams/the driving test

Tom failed, but his sister got through.

She got all her pupils through French A level.

4) 使正式通过或被采纳

Do you think the Bill will get through the Parliament?

5) 接通电话和…联系

I tried ringing you several times yesterday, but I couldn’t get through to you.

6) 度过 get through difficult situation

Her grandma was in great danger. The doctor said that she couldn’t get through the night.

13 bend(bent, bent) v.

1) 弯曲,弯腰

It’s hard to bend a iron bar.

She bent down and picked it up.

2) be bent on (doing)sth.决心采取(某行动),专心致志于(做)某事

She is bent on pleasure.一心要享乐

He is bent on winning at all costs.不惜一切去争取胜利

He bent his mind to the job. 他专心与工作。

bend to sb’s will 顺从某人的意志

14. detail

1). n细节,详情

He refused to go into details (详细叙述)about his plans.

He refused to explain/ describe it in detail (详细地)。


I detailed our plans to her.

3) adj. detailed 详细的,详尽的 detailed information/description

15 focus (pl. focuses, foci)

n. 1) (光,声等的中心点,源)


The focus on my camera isn’t working properly.

2) 活动的中心,感兴趣所在

Her beauty makes her the focus of attention.

In tonight’s programme our focus is on Germany.

v. focus (sth) on sth 调整焦点于,(注意力,精神)集中于

Focus your camera on the trees.

I am too tired, I can’t focus on anything today.

Please focus your attention/mind on the following problems.

16 occur vi. (occurrence n.)

1) 发生 happen

The accident occurred at five o'clock.

2) 存在 exist; be found

Such plants don't occur here.


3)occur to sb 想起;想到

An idea occurred to me.

Did it ever occur to you that this will probably cause an accident?

It occurred to me that I hadn’t finished my homework.

Warming up /listening/speaking

1. keep +宾语 +宾补

eg. The coat will keep you warm.

Illness kept him in bed for a week.

I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a long time.

They kept their marriage a secret.

The heavy rain kept us from going abroad.

2. match ---with---

1) 使---和---相配

2) 使---和---竞争或较量

I’m ready to match my strength against yours .

Match your skill against the experts in this quiz.

match vt/vi. 相配,相匹敌,相竞争

The curtains won’t match the carpets.

The curtains and the carpets match perfectly.

The two pieces of furniture don’t match.

No one can match her at chess.

A well-matched couple 很匹配的一对

3. To tell (you ) the truth( 老实说), I don’t agree with you.

4. disagree with sb. (on/about sth. ) 与某人有分歧,不同意

disagree with sb. /what sb says /sb’s words

The food/climate disagreed with me.

The food /climate doesn’t agree with me.

Agree to do sth

Agree to sth. ( plan, suggestion, proposal, arrangement, idea, etc.)

Agree on sth. ( price, date,etc.)

Agree with sb/what sb says/ sb’s words

Sign an agreement with sb.

Come to /arrive at /reach/ make an agreement

In agreement with ---


1. express one’s thoughts / emotion/ opinion 表达某人的思想,情感,观点

express one’s satisfaction with---- 对----表示满意

The teacher expressed his satisfaction with the result for the experiment.

2. communicate with----与---进行交流

He is difficult to communicate with.

They communicate with each other by radio/telephone.

communicate sth. (to sb.) 传播,传送

He communicated his intension to me. 他把他的意向告诉了我。

Please communicate the news to our friends.

Communicate a disease 传播疾病

be in communication with sb.

3. look directly into sb’s eyes 直视对方的眼睛

look into sth. 调查或观察某事 look into the case/problem

directly adv. 1) 径直地,直接地,坦率地,直爽地,

He looked directly at us .

She speaks very directly to people.


Come in directly.

3) conj. 一----就----=as soon as

I went home directly I had finished work.

direct adv. 径直地,中途不停地; 亲自地,直接地

The train goes there direct.

I prefer to deal with him direct. 我还是直接跟他打交道为好。

4. around the world=all over the world=throughout the world 全世界,世界各地

5. as to sth. ; as regards sth. 至于某事物,提到某事物

As to what clothes you should wear, there are no special rules.

6. greet vt. 欢迎,迎接,致意,问候, greet sb with sth

He greeted me in the street with a friendly wave of the hand.

She greeted her guests politely at the door.

His speech was greeted with great cheers and applause.

greeting n. 招呼,问候,欢迎

send greetings 致以问候 a greetings card 贺卡

7. While there are many different interpretations of our body language, some gestures seem to be universal . 尽管对身势语有许多不同的解释,有些手势好象是全球通用的。

While conj. 1)尽管,虽然,=although

While I admit that there are problems, I don’t agree that they cannot be solved.


While I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you.

While he tried his best, he failed in the experiment.

3) 当----的时候, 在----期间

He fell asleep while he was doing his homework .

Strike while the iron is hot.

4) 与----同时

While mary was writing a letter, the children were playing outside.

He listens to the radio while driving to work.

5) 然而(表示对比或相反)

My brother is very tall while I am so short.

She thought I was talking about her daughter, while, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.

8. feel down or lonely 情绪低落,闷闷不乐,感到孤独,

down adj. 到楼下;病倒;倒下;沮丧;首次付款的;

All right, I’ll be down immediately.

be/go down with sth 有病,得病

He is down with a cold.

Several trees are down.

She felt down/lonely about her leaving.

Pay me $500 as a down payment 先付给我500美圆定钱。

9. have a lot/ much/something/a great deal/nothing/little/not much in common with ---


in common with ---- 和----一样

Grammar -----Ving 形式

1. 作主语

2. 作宾语

3. 作表语

4. 作定语

Unit 18

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